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Showing posts from October, 2020

Milestones in the history of Plant Tissue Culture

  Milestones in the history of Plant Tissue Culture  20 Scientists name and their contribution to Plant Tissue culture         Gottlieb Haberlandt - Father of Plant Tissue Culture  Plant Tissue Culture is an in vitro aseptic conditions of plant cells, tissues, or organs maintained growth under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. It is a collection of various techniques that helps for the development of the plants under the artificial environment that produces the required plant quickly. In short, Plant tissue culture is the growth of organs, tissues, or cells in an artificial medium. Applications part of Plant Tissue Culture are : It is the most efficient technology for crop improvement. Production of the plant by Plant Tissue culture technology has the capability to resistance to various diseases.  The plants become tolerable to stress. The most important application of plant tissue culture is the micropropagation of plant species. It is an important


  Biofuels-Fuels based on Biotechnology  Biologically produced fuels Image credit to Eric Sanman /  As we see all around us there are numbers of vehicles, industries, and other lots of things that utilize fuels. In our surrounding two types of energy sources, we can say the renewable sources of energy and non-renewable sources of energy. We used mostly fossil fuels as a major source of energy in our daily life purposes. Fossil fuels fall in the non-renewable source of energy category. All of these fossil fuels emission causes harm to our environment that leads to global warming. We all very familiar with this ‘Global Warming’ term and there so many bad Impacts on the whole world. So, now it’s time to renew and replace this type of fuel that shows impacts on our environment and the health of human beings.  So, here is the fuel name is ‘Biofuels’ that is eco-friendly in nature and solves all the problems that are not suitable for our environment and our health too.  Biofuels

Blotting Technique used for Identification of Nucleic Acid

  3 Blotting Techniques used for the identification of Nucleic Acid Basics techniques in the genetic engineering field                               Image Credit to Polina Tankilevitch /Unsplash  Nucleic acid like DNA and RNA is widely used in various research work. So, the identification of desired DNA and RNA from thousands of molecules becomes the basic requirement. The blotting technique is widely used as an analytical tool for the identification of desired DNA and RNA fragments. The basic principle behind this blotting technique is the process based on immobilization of samples i.e. nucleic acid and solid support.  Blot helps to transfer nucleic acid onto the carrier so they can easily be separated from the desired nucleic acid fragment. The solid support or carrier mostly used in the blotting technique are Nitrocellulose, Nylon membrane, and DBM paper that helps for the blot nucleic acid for further use in hybridization experiments for specific detection.  Basic steps used in the

PCR Technique

PCR — Polymerase Chain Reaction  DNA Amplification  @nci/Unsplash   D NA ( Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) is the genetic material. It helps to transfer genes from one generation to another generation. Many experiments are based on DNA. So its amplification is necessary for research for future use of DNA sample for testing. PCR i.e. Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique to amplify the DNA. It is an automated machine. This technique helps to generate large quantities of specified DNA. It is an amplification technique that can generate a billion copies of specified DNA. Karry Mullis in 1984 developed a PCR technique. It is a basic technique in the molecular biology field. The principle of PCR technique based on three steps -  1. Denaturation 2. Renaturation  3. Synthesis or polymerases  The technical explanation  of PCR step by step  Requirements 1.Target DNA 100-35,000 bp in length 2. Two primers 17-30 nucleotide in length 3. Four relevant deoxynucleotides  4. Enzyme Taq DNA polymerase  St

Artificial Active Immunity

  Artificial Active Immunity  Immunization or Vaccination  Image Credit to Karolina Grabowska on S everal diseases show their effects. Our immune system is so weak due to our living style and eating habits. our body does not respond properly against the pathogens due to the weak immune systems. So, scientists invent a vaccine. When naturally our body resists to respond or produce antibodies against these harmful pathogens then artificial active immunity is provided via a vaccination. The early vaccine process for immunization based on the idioms —  Diamond Cut Diamond means to say those disease effects by a pathogen, the method to kill or weakens the effect of this pathogen produces vaccines from the same or related pathogen by weakens its pathogenicity. For example -To immunize the snake bite the vaccine is prepared from the snake venom. The vaccine also an immunogen helps to induce artificial active immunity. The vaccine is a mixture of an antigen that helps to generate im


  Single Cell Protein (SCP) Microorganisms As Food  Image credit to Edward Jenner/   M icroorganisms are omnipresent, they are found everywhere, where there is life exit. Microorganisms are both beneficial and harmful. Some microorganisms are used in the food and some are used as food. This article is related to In which way how microorganisms are used as food. Single-cell protein (SCP) is used as a supplement of protein.SCP is generated to wakeup the protein deficiency. It may be used as both feed and food. Consumption of SCP is direct as a human food supplement and may be used in the animal feed also.  Many microorganisms such as algae, yeasts, fungi, and bacteria species are used for the production of SCP. Some of the examples of Microorganisms species that are used as food and feed : Algae Chlorella sp. Spirulina maxima etc. Yeast Candida utilis Candida lipolytica Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kluyveromyces fragilis etc. Fungi Fusarium graminearum Paecilomyces varioti etc. B

Virus Free Plant

Production of virus Free Plant Techniques to Eradicate viruses M ost of the propagated by vegetative are systematically infected by viruses. It can reduce the yield or reduce the quality of plants and leads to death. To Optimize the yield of the crop it is necessary to eradicate these viruses. Plants infected with bacteria or fungi may respond to bactericidal and fungicidal treatment but there is no commercially available treatment to cure virus-infected plants. The distribution of viruses in plants varies differently, the apical meristem generally free to carry a very low concentration of viruses. High metabolic activity in the actively dividing meristem cells and a high endogenous auxin level in shoot species may be the inhibitory factors for virus multiplication. Techniques to eradicate viruses are : Thermotherapy ( Heat Treatment of plants) Meristem-tip culture Chemical Suspension( Chemical treatment on media) Other in vitro methods  Thermotherapy( Heat Treatment of plants) Thermo