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Showing posts from September, 2020

Immunodeficiency Disorders

  Immunodeficiency Disorders The immune system becomes defective and loses the capability to fight against disease Image Credit/@nci/Unsplash T oday, many warning signs show all around us that weakened our immune system. Like our lifestyle becomes so stressful, our environment is so polluted that is full of toxic chemicals and gases that harm us and show red flags to our immune system. Immunodeficiency is a state when the immune system’s ability to fight against disease becomes degrade and one or more components of the immune system that become defective. Then the immune system does not work properly. Immunodeficiency is two types 1.Primary immunodeficiency ( Congenital or inherited) 2.Secondary Immunodeficiency(acquired) When one or more genes that are involved in the development and function of the immune system become defective are known as primary immunodeficiency . There is shows a genetic cause behind the primary immunodeficiency disease. The deficiency has shown in one or more g

How ELISA helps to detect HIV?

  How ELISA helps to detect HIV? Indirect ELISA is the method of choice to detect the presence of serum antibodies against HIV Image Credit/cottonbro/ A IDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome)is one of the most challenging and serious epidemic diseases worldwide.AIDS occurs due to HIV i.e.Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In 1981, HIV causes one of humanity’s deadliest and most persistent epidemics. According to a survey in 2019, it is estimated that 1.7 million individuals are affected by AIDS. Data shows 1.5 million cases were infected to adults and 150,000 infections were shown in children ( < 15-year-Old) recorded. This epidemic disease may be chronic can last for a year or be lifelong. A person infected with HIV progressed to AIDS due to : The number of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood ( Healthy immune system, CD4 counts between 500 and 1,600 cells per cubic millimeter of blood)or develop opportunistic infections regardless of CD4 count. with


  Micropropagation- In vitro propagation The miniature version of conventional propagation Image credit/John Lambeth/ P lant tissue culture is used to maintain or grow plant cells by in vitro cultivation under aseptic and controlled environment conditions. In short plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used for the production of virus-free plants, for the production of artificial seeds and trangenic pants, for the varietal improvements of plants, and many more. In other terms, it is an experimental technique through which callus ( a mass of cells) is produced from explant cells. Tissue culture refers to the growth of organs, tissues, and cells in an artificial medium. Gottlieb Haberlandt is  considered a father of plant tissue culture because in  1902 he suggested that “ one could successfully cultivate artificial embryos from vegetative cells”.The idea of Totipotency was conceived by him. He was the first to culture isolated, fully differentiated cells in a nut

Fermented Probiotic Food and Drink

  Fermentation Plus Probiotic Property Resulted in Weight Loss Fermented Probiotic food and drink may help in weight loss Image credit/Burst/ P robiotics are live bacterial and yeast that are good for our digestive system because they keep our gut healthy which further helps to reduce weight because weight loss depends upon healthy digestion. Doctors also suggest probiotics to help digestive problems. There are some most common probiotics are: Lactobacillus ( Bacteria)  — Helps to cure diarrhea Bifidobacterium ( Bacteria)  — Helps to ease the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( IBS) Saccharomyces mycesboulardii (yeast)  — helps to fight diarrhea and other digestive problems The most common fermented food contains probiotics either naturally or added synthetically. some of the fermented food containing probiotic properties are —  yogurt, kefir, kombucha, Tamari, sauerkraut, pickles, miso, tempeh, kimchi, some varieties of cheese, etc. shows a probiotic property. Fermented p


           Amazake: Fermented Japanese Drink         One of the contributing reasons to Japanese longevity                                      A mazake is a traditional drink in Japan. It is a very popular drink during New Year and Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival). It is recommended as a health drink. This is a fermented drink, made from Rice Koji and Sake lees. It is creamy in texture and mild sweet in taste. Amazake served as a chilled, hot, or warm. The catchy nickname of Amazake is an IV drip. This fermented sweet sake is rich in nutrients consisting of Vitamin( B1, B2, B6, E ), Folic acid, Ferulic acid, Iron, Zinc, Potassium, Calcium, Manganese, Magnesium, Fiber, Glutamine, and Glucose. Amazake has two versions, Non-Alcoholic Amazake Alcoholic Amazake Non-Alcoholic Amazake made with koji rice means rice covered with koji mold i.e. Aspergillus oryzae and water. Aspergillus oryzae converts rice starch into sugars during the fermentation process. The major source of sweetness is gluco

Ocean Acidification

 Ocean Acidification pH Degradation of Ocean Water Image credit to Jeremy Bishop @jeremybishop /Unsplash  “Ocean acidification — the excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is turning the oceans increasingly acid- is a slow but accelerating impact with consequences that will greatly overshow all the oil spills put together. The warming trend that is CO2 — related will overshadow all the oil spills that have ever occurred put together”-Sylvia Earle The burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial agriculture increase CO2, and heat-trapping gases like carbon dioxide in our environment lead our planet to warm. Today, our environment is polluted due to human action. Ocean water polluted by business-as-usual-emission scenarios has resulted in increases in CO2 levels in our atmosphere. When CO2 increases in the environment it results in decreases in the pH level of water, and then the ocean water becomes acidic. This type of ocean acidification affects the entire ocean, inclu