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Immunodeficiency Disorders


Immunodeficiency Disorders

The immune system becomes defective and loses the capability to fight against disease

Today, many warning signs show all around us that weakened our immune system. Like our lifestyle becomes so stressful, our environment is so polluted that is full of toxic chemicals and gases that harm us and show red flags to our immune system.

Immunodeficiency is a state when the immune system’s ability to fight against disease becomes degrade and one or more components of the immune system that become defective. Then the immune system does not work properly.

Immunodeficiency is two types

1.Primary immunodeficiency ( Congenital or inherited)

2.Secondary Immunodeficiency(acquired)

When one or more genes that are involved in the development and function of the immune system become defective are known as primary immunodeficiency. There is shows a genetic cause behind the primary immunodeficiency disease.

The deficiency has shown in one or more genes defected that acquired after birth due to infection, some toxic chemical effects and it is not related to a genetic cause or defect is known as secondary immunodeficiency.

In this article, we discuss some primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases-

Primary Immunodeficiency disease

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease ( SCID)

SCID is a type of genetic disorder defect. The autosomally SCID occurs due to adenosine deaminase deficiency. The function of the adenosine deaminase enzyme is to convert adenosine to inosine when the enzyme becomes deficient then the accumulation of adenosine occurs which results in the accumulation of nucleotide metabolites that are harmful to h the development of T-cells.

Characterization of SCID :

  1. A very low number of circulating lymphocytes
  2. B-cell and T-cell of the adaptive immune system become non-functional.
  3. Neither T-cell dependent antibody nor cell-mediated immune response has not shown their response.
  4. The patient can’t develop immunological memory.

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

It is a type of autosomal recessive disease. This type of disease shown by recurrent bacterial infection results lacks of skin and eye pigment. With this immune defect phagocytes present in patients become giant that is incapable to kill this bacteria. Mutation during this defect impairs the targeting of proteins to lysosomes.

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a genetic disease shown in children. It is a rare disease. In this disease child’s bone marrow to difficult to produce platelets as a result of clotting agents out of control. This disease, T-cell and B-cell work not properly and WBCs do not properly fight with infections. The child with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome also risks of developing autoimmune anemia, arthritis, lymphoma, nephritis, and risk of other certain cancer.

Secondary Immunodeficiency disease

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ( AIDS)

AIDS causes by the virus known as HIV i.e. Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. This virus mark show deficiency in the cellular immune response that resulted in a decrease in the population of T-cell that carries the CD4 marker. HIV retard the capability of the body to fight against the disease. It is spread to contact by body fluids of HIV person.AIDS is a type of Sexually Transmitted Disease(STD).AIDS badly affects our immune system.

Leukemia( Cancers of the immune system)

Leukemia is a cancer of blood-forming tissues. The National Cancer Institute estimates that 61,780 people were diagnosed with leukemia in2019. Same year death prediction of leukemia caused 22,840.

Leukemia mainly damages white blood cells. During this disease bone marrow produce new cancer cells rather than a healthy one. Then these cells occupy more space that does not die by the natural immune system process and resulted in cancerous cells dominate over the healthy cells that are present in the blood. Leukemia can develop quickly and normally depending upon the stage.

Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis also falls into the category of secondary immunodeficiency disease. This disease causes liver inflammation and its damage. Inflammation can swell the tissues and damage the organs.

Viral hepatitis is five different types of categories like hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. These all categories depends upon the mode of infection.

Hepatitis A and E -Spread through contact with food and water contaminated with infected persons, or by eating uncooked pork, or shellfish.

Hepatitis B, C, and D-Spread through contact with the infected person's blood and body fluids.

Hepatitis B, C, and D cause chronic hepatitis that leads to complications of liver cancer, cirrhosis, and liver failure.

Presently we need to give attention to our immune system. To boost up the body’s immune system we need to change our lifestyle and eating habits. Keep our immune system strong and healthy by improving the bad environment that plays a role to retard our immune system.



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