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DNA Profiling

DNA Profiling: enhancing the control of Crime through emerging technologies

 How crime can be controlled by specific Biotechnology Applications of DNA Fingerprinting?

DNA. i.e.Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid acts as genetic material. The unique property of the DNA due to its chemical properties. The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same but the only difference between person DNA is the order of the base pairs. Hence the result is every person could be identified solely by its sequence of their base pairs. 

DNA profiling is a technique used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. This is a method used to identify an individual from a sample of DNA with the help unique pattern that is present in their DNA.

The original DNA fingerprinting technique was developed by Alec Jeffreys in 1985. DNA Profiling knew as DNA testing, DNA typing, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA fingerprinting.DNA fingerprint is an analysis of the nitrogenous base sequence in the DNA of an individual.

(DNA Fingerprint is a Molecular marker pattern of an individual obtained by using highly polymorphic markers; used for unequivocal identification of strains, individuals, criminals, etc.)

The structure of each person’s genome is unique. The unique nature of genome structure provides a good opportunity for the specific identification of an individual.

(*The only exception in the genome structure being monozygotic identical twins because in this case, twins developed from a single fertilized ovum)

DNA profiling exploits highly variable repeat sequences called VNTRs( Variable Number Tandem Repeats).VNTRs generally include micro-satellites and mini-satellites.Within the specific sequence of the repeat units composing VNTR are highly conserved among individuals. Differences in the number of repeats thus in the length of a simple -sequence e tandem array containing the same repeat units, are quite common among individuals. These DNA polymorphism firm the basis of DNA fingerprinting. The high variability in minisatellites makes them useful for genomic mapping because there is a high probability that individuals will vary in their alleles at such a locus.

[* VNTRs are located in a particular site on a pair of homologous chromosomes.VNTRs consists of a core sequence that is repeated several times. VNTRs identified two types: one is Mini-satellites ( 20–100 bases repeated 0–30 times, and the second one is 2–5 bases repeated 5–50 times this type of micro-satellite also called Short Tandem Repeats(STRs).VNTRs commonly found ]in the introns .ie. non-coding region.]


  1. Sample of DNA is first amplified by using PCR .i.e. Polymerase Chain Reaction.
  2. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at different sizes because different people have different sequences. So, restrictions enzymes help to get a required size of DNA. This shows a set of different-sized fragments unique to the individuals.
  3. These fragments then separate according to the size with the help of gel electrophoresis. 
  4. Probe with label sequences is used to see the fragments of DNA.


  1. Paternity

DNA profiling is used for the settlement of paternity disputes. This technique helps to determine whether or not an individual is the parent of a child and helps to establish the true parents. 

2.Forensic Science 

This DNA Profiling is used to compared the sample collected from the crime scene with suspects. That helps to establish beyond a reasonable doubt that a person is guilty of a crime for which he or she has been accused.

3.Food safety and security

DNA profiling plays an important role to detect food safety and food security that help for the identification and parentage of plants and animals. 

4.Diagnosis of genetic disease

DNA profiling plays a very important role in genetic research. This technique is applied to identify, isolate, and develop to cure genetic diseases. 

DNA profiling is the present-day genetic detective in the practice of modern medical forensics. 

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